Appendix: Literature Cited


[ACGIH] American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 2005. TLVs and BEIs. Cincinnati, OH: Signature Publications.

[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2007. Toxicological profile for arsenic. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta GA [updated 2007 August; accessed 2008 January 14]. Available from:

Aposhian, HV. 1989. Biochemical toxicology of arsenic. 1989. Rev Biochem Toxicol. New York, NY: Elsevier/North Holland. 10:265-299.

Aposhian HV, Zakharyan RA, Avram MD, Sampayo-Reyes A, Wollenberg ML. 2004. A review of the enzymology of arsenic metabolism and a new potential role of hydrogen peroxide in the detoxication of the trivalent arsenic species. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:327-335.

Armstrong CW, Stroube RB, Rubio T, Siudyla EA, Miller GB Jr. 1984. Outbreak of fatal arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water. Arch Environ Health 39:276-9.

Beckett WS, Moore JL, Keogh JP, Bleecker ML. 1986. Acute encephalopathy due to occupational exposure to arsenic. Br J Indust Med 43:66-67.

Bleecker M. 2007. Toxic Peripheral Neuropathy. In: Rom W and Markowitz S eds. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 643.

Bertolero F, Pozzi G, Sabbioni E, Saffiotti U. 1987. Cellular uptake and metabolic reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic as determinants of cytotoxicity and morphological transformations. Carcinogenesis 8:803-808.

Buchet JP, Lauwerys R, Roels H. 1981. Comparison of the urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites after a single dose of sodium arsenite, monomethylarsonate or dimethylarsinate in man. In Arch Occup Environ Health 48:71-179.

Caldwell KL, Jones RL, Verdon, CP, Jeffery M. Jarrett JM, Caudill SP, Osterloh JD. 2008. Levels of urinary total and speciated arsenic in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 1-10.

Carbrey JM, Gorelick-Feldman DA, Kozono D, Praetorius J, Nielsen S, Agre P. 2003. Aquaglyceroporin AQP9: solute permeation and metabolic control of expression in liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100:2945-2950.

Centeno JA, Mullick FG, Martinez L, Page NP, Gibb H, Longfellow D, et. al. 2002. Pathology related to chronic arsenic exposure. Environ Health Perspect 110:883-886.

[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Biomonitoring Results since the Third Report. Atlanta GA [updated 2009 March; accessed 2009 April]. Available from:

Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chowdhury UK ; Rahman MM; Sengupta MK. 2003a. Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 41(7): 963-967.

Chakraborti D, Hussam A, Alauddin M. 2003b. Arsenic: Environmental health aspects with special reference to ground water in South Asia. J Environ Sci Health Part A 38(1):xi-xv.

Chan TYK. 1994. The prevalence, use and harmful potential of some Chinese herbal medicines in babies and children. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(3):238-240.

Chang CC, Ho SC, Tsai SS, Yang CY. 2004. Ischemic heart disease mortality reduction in an arsenosis-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan after a switch in the tap-water supply system. J Toxicol Environ Health 67:1353-1361.

Chen CJ, Hsueh YM, Lai MS, Shyu MP; Chen SY; Wu MM; et. al. 1995. Increased prevalence of hypertension and long-term arsenic exposure. Hypertension 25:53-60.

Chiou HY, Hsueh YM, Liaw KF, Horng SF, Chiang MH, Pu YS. 1995. Incidence of internal cancers and ingested inorganic arsenic: a seven-year follow-up study in Taiwan . Cancer Res 55:1296-1300.

Chung JS, Kalman DA, Moore LE, Kosnett, MJ, Arroyo AP, Beeris M, et al. 2002. Family Correlations of Arsenic Methylation Patterns in Children and Parents Exposed to High Concentrations of Arsenic in Drinking Water. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 110, number 7, 729-733.

Cohen D and Moore M. Occupational Skin Disease. 2007. In: Rom W and Markowitz S eds. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 635.

Concha G, Vogler G, Nermell B, Vahter M. 2002. Intra-individual variation in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75:576-580.

Datta DV. 1976. Arsenic and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Lancet 1:433.

Donofrio PD, Wilbourne AJ, Albers JW, Do, LR, Salanga, V, Greenberg, HS. 1987. Acute arsenic intoxication presenting as Guillain Barré like syndrome. Muscle Nerve 10:114-120.

Dopp E, Hartmann LM, Florea AM, von Recklinghausen U, Pieper R, Shokouhi B. 2004. Uptake of inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic associated with induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 201(2):156-165.

Drobna Z, Waters SB, Walton FS, Lecluyse EL Thomas DJ; Styblo M. 2004. Interindividual variation in the metabolism of arsenic in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 201:166-177.

Elmariah SB, Anolik R, Walters RF, Rosenman K, Pomeranz MK, Sanchez MR, 2008. Invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and arsenical keratoses. Dermatol Online J. 14(10):24.

Engel RR, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Receveur O, Smith AH. 1994. Vascular effects of chronic arsenic exposure: a review. Epidemiol Rev 16:184-209.

Enterline PE, Henderson VL, Marsh GM. 1987. Exposure to arsenic and respiratory cancer: a reanalysis. Am J Epidemiol 125:929-38.

[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic in drinking water. Washington DC [updated 2006, September 14; accessed 2009 March]. Available from:

[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic compounds hazard summary. Technology transfer network air toxics website. Washington DC [updated 2007 November 6; accessed 2009 March]. Available from:

[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Recommendations for management of lumber treated with arsenic-containing pesticides used in homes. “Questions & answers on CCA-treated wood sealant studies (interim results).” Washington DC [updated April 7 2008; accessed 2009 September 14]. Available from:

[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse. Military munitions/unexploded ordnance. Washington DC [updated 2008 November 10; accessed 2009 April]. Available from:

Falk H, Caldwell GG, Ishak KG, Thomas LB, Popper H. 1981. Arsenic related hepatic angiosarcoma. Am J Ind Med 2:43-50.

Foa V, Colombi A, Maroni M. 1984. The speciation of the chemical forms of arsenic in the biological monitoring of exposure to inorganic arsenic. Sci Total Environ. 34:241-259.

Garb LG, Hine CH. 1977. Arsenical neuropathy: residual effects following acute industrial exposure. J Occup Med 19567-568.

Garcia-Vargas GG, Cebrian ME. 1996. Health effects of arsenic. In: Wang LW, ed. Toxicology of metals. Boca Raton FL: CRC Press. p. 423-438.

Garvey GJ, Hahn G, Lee RV, Harbison RD. 2001. Heavy metal hazards of Asian traditional remedies. Int J Environ Health Res 11(1):63-71.

Gerr F, Letz R. 2000. Epidemiological case definitions of peripheral neuropathy: experience from two neurotoxicity studies. Neurotoxicity 21:761-768.

Giberson A, Vaziri ND, Mirahadi K, Rosen SM. 1976. Haemodialysis of acute arsenic intoxication with transient renal failure. Arch Intern Med 136:1303-1304.

Gorby MS. 1988. Arsenic poisoning. West J Med 149:308-315.

Guha Mazumder DN. 2003. Chronic arsenic toxicity: clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment: experience in West Bengal. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazards Subst Environ Eng A38:141-163.

Hafeman DM, Ahsan H, Louis ED, Siddique AB, Slavkovich V, Zhongqi C, et al. 2005. Association between arsenic exposure and a measure of subclinical sensory neuropathy in Bangladesh . Occup Environ Med 47:778-784.

Hertz-Picciotto I, Arrighi HM, Hu SW. 2000. Does arsenic exposure increase the risk for circulatory disease? Am J Epidemiol 151:174-181.

Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Smith AH. 1998. Lung and kidney cancer mortality association with arsenic in drinking water in Cordoba Argentina . Int Epidemiol Assoc 27:561-569.

Hsueh YM, Cheng GS, Wu MM, Yu HS, Kuo TL, Chen CJ. 1995. Multiple risk factors associated with arsenic-induced skin cancer: effects of chronic liver disease and malnutritional status. Br J Cancer 71:109-114.

Hu J, Fang J, Dong Y, Chen, SJ, Chen, Z. 2005. Arsenic in cancer therapy. Anti-Cancer Drugs 16:119-127.

[IARC] International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2004. IARC monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans. Some drinking water disinfectant and contaminants, including arsenic. Vol. 84. Lyon, FR: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Ishinishi N, Tsuchiya K, Vahter M, Fowler BA. 1986. Arsenic. In: Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Vouk V, eds. Handbook on the toxicology of metals. Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier Science.

Kales, SN; Huyck, KL; Goldman, RH. 2006. Elevated urine arsenic: un-speciated results lead to unnecessary concern and further evaluations. J Anal Toxicol 30(2):80-85.

Kaltreider RC, Davis AM, Lariviere JP, Hamilton JW. 2001. Arsenic alters the function of the glucocorticoid receptor as a transcription factor. Environ Health Perspect 109:245-251.

Kerr HD, Saryan LA. 1986. Arsenic content of homeopathic medicines. Clin Toxicol 24(5): 451-459.

Kitchin, KT. 2001. Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: Modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated arsenic metabolites. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 172:49-261.

Kyle RA, Pease GL. 1965. Hematologic aspects of arsenic intoxication. N Engl J Med 273:18-23.

Lansdown AB. 1995. Physiological and toxicological changes in the skin resulting from the action and interaction of metal ions. Crit Rev Toxicol 25:397-462.

Lasngerkvist BJ, Zetterlund B. 1994. Assessment of exposure to arsenic among smelter workers: a five year follow‑up. Am J Ind Med 25:377-88.

Lauwerys R, Hoet P. 1993. Industrial Chemical Exposure. Guidelines for Biological Monitoring. Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Loffredo CA, Aposhian HV, Cebrian ME, Yamauchi H, Silbergeld EK. 2003. Variability in human metabolism of arsenic. Environ Res 92:85-91.

Lopez S, Miyashita Y, Simons SS. 1990. Structurally based, selective interaction of arsenic with steroid receptors. J Biol Chem 265:16039-16042.

Lugo G, Cassady G, Palmisano P. 1969. Acute maternal arsenic intoxication with neonatal death. Am J Dis Child 117:328-330.

Marafante E, Vahter M, Norin H, Envall J, Sandström M, Christakopoulos A. 1987. Biotransformation of dimethylarsinic acid in mouse, hamster and man. J Appl Toxicol 7:111-117

Mazumder DG, De BK, Santra A, Ghosh N; Das S; Lahiri S. 2001. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) in therapy of chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Clin Toxicol 39:665-674.

Meharg, A. 2003. The arsenic green. Nature 423:688.

Miller WH Jr, Schipper HM, Lee JS, Singer J, Waxman S. 2002. Mechanisms of action of arsenic trioxide. Cancer Res 62:3893-3903.

Mitra SR, Guha Mazumder DN, Basu A, Block G, Haque R, Samanta S, et al. 2004. Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions in West Bengal, India. Environ Health Perspect 112:1104-1109.

Murphy MJ, Lyon LW, Taylor JW. 1981. Subacute arsenic neuropathy: clinical and electrophysiological observations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 44:896-900.

Murunga E, Zawada E. 2007. Environmental and occupational causes of toxic injury to the kidneys and urinary tract. In: Rom W and Markowitz S eds. Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 810.

[NAS] National Academy of Sciences. 1977. Medical and biologic effects of environmental pollutants, arsenic. Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences.

[NIOSH] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. 2005. NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards: arsenic. NIOSH publication no. Washington, DC: NIOSH. p. 149.

[NRC] National Research Council. 2000. Arsenic in drinking water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nordstrom S, Beckman L, Nordenson I. 1979 Occupational and environmental risks in and around a smelter in northern Sweden . V. Spontaneous abortion among female employees and decreased birth weight in their offspring. VI. Congenital malformations. Hereditas 90:291-302.

[OSHA] Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Safety and health Topics. Arsenic. Washington, DC [updated 2008 June; accessed September 2009]. Available from:

Pi J, Yamauchi H, Sun G, Yoshida T, Aikawa H, Fujimoto W, et. al. 2005. Vascular dysfunction in patients with chronic arsenosis can be reversed by reduction of arsenic exposure. Environ Health Perspect 113:339-341.

Popper H, Thomas LB, Telles NC, Falk H, Selikoff IJ. 1978. Development of hepatic angiosarcoma in man induced by vinyl chloride, thorotrast and arsenic. Am J Pathol 92:349-376.

Ratnaike RN. 2003. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity. Postgraduate Medical Journal 79:391-396.

Reynolds ES. 1901. An account of the epidemic outbreak of arsenical poisoning occurring in beer drinkers in the north of England and midland countries in 1900. Lancet 1:166-170.

Rose M, Lewis J, Langford N, Baxter M, Origgi S, Barber M, et al. 2007. Arsenic in seaweed-forms, concentration and dietary exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 45, Issue 7: 1263-1267.

Rosenman K. 2007. Occupational heart disease. In: Rom W and Markowitz S eds. Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 688.

Rossman T. 2007. Arsenic. In: Rom W and Markowitz S eds. Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1006-1017.

Schoen A, Beck B, Sharma R, Dube E. 2004. Arsenic toxicity at low doses: epidemiological and mode of action considerations. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:253-267.

Selzer PM, Ancel MA. 1983. Chronic arsenic poisoning masquerading as pernicious anemia. West J Med 139(2):219-220.

Sexton GB, Gowdey CW. 1963. Relation between thiamine and arsenic toxicity. Arch Dermatol Syph 56:634-647.

Shacklette, HT,Boerngen, JG. 1984. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States : Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 1270. p. 6.

Shalat SL, Walker DB, Finnell RH. 1996. Role of arsenic as a reproductive toxin with particular attention to neural tube defects. J Toxicol Env Hlth 48(3):253-72.

Simeonova PP, Luster MI. 2004. Arsenic and atherosclerosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:444-449.

Son SB, Song HJ, Son SW. 2008. Successful treatment of palmoplantar arsenical keratosis with a combination of keratolytics and low dose acitretin. Clin Exp Dermatol 33(2): 202-4.

Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Rhaman MM. 2004. Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India? Sci Total Environ 323:21-32.

Steinmaus C, Carrigan K, Kalman D, Yuan Y, Smith AH. 2005. Dietary intake and arsenic methylation in a U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 113:1153-1159.

Styblo M, Drobna Z, Jaspers I, Lin S, Thomas DJ. 2002. The role of biomethylation in toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic: a research update. Environ Health Perspect 110:767-771.

Tseng WP, Chu HM, How SW, Fong JM, Lin CS, Yeh S. 1968. Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan . J Natl Cancer Inst 40:453-463.

Tseng CH, Huang YK, Huang YL, Chung CJ, Yang MH, Chen CJ, et al. 2005. Arsenic exposure, urinary arsenic speciation, and peripheral vascular disease in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan [published erratum appears in Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 211 (2):175] Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206(3):299-308.

Tseng CH, Tseng CP, Chiou HY, Hsueh YM, Choon-Khim Chong CK, Chen CJ. 2002. Epidemiologic evidence of diabetogenic effect of arsenic. Toxicol Lett 133:69-76.

Tseng CH. 2003. Abnormal current perception thresholds measured by neurometer among residents in blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages in Taiwan . Toxicol Lett 146:27-36.

Uede K, Furukawa F. 2003. Skin manifestations in acute arsenic poisoning from the Wakayama curry-poisoning incident. British Journal of Dermatology 149 (4):757-762.

[USGS] United States Geological Survey. 2005. Arsenic in ground water in the United Sates. Reston, VA [updated 2009 June 16; accessed 2009 September 14]. Available from:

Vahter M. 2002. Mechanisms of arsenic biotransformation. Toxicology 181:211-217.

Vahter M, Marafante E, Dencker L. 1983. Metabolism of arsenobetaine in mice, rats and rabbits. Sci Total Environ 30:197-211.

Valentine JL, Kang HK, Spivey G. 1979. Arsenic levels in human blood, urine, and hair in response to exposure via drinking water. Environ Res 20:24-32.

Valenzuela OL, Borja-Aburto VH, Garcia-Vargas GG, Cruz-Gonzalez MBB, Garcia-Montalvo EA, Calderon-Aranda ES et al. 2005. Urinary trivalent methylated arsenic species in a population chronically exposed to inorganic arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 113(3):250-254.

Vantroyen B, Heilier JF, Meulemans A, Michels A, Buchet J-P, Vanderschueren S, et al. 2004. Survival after a lethal dose of arsenic trioxide. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6): 889-895.

Verret WJ, Chen Y, Ahmed A; Islam T, Parvez F, Kibriya MG et al. 2005. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of vitamin E and selenium on arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh . J Occup Environ Med 47(10):1026-35.

Wang Z, Dey S, Rosen BP, Rossman TG. 1996. Efflux mediated resistance to arsenicals in arsenic-resistant and hypersensitive Chinese hamster cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 137:112-119.

Welch, K., Higgins, I., Oh, M. and Burchfiel, C. 1982. Arsenic exposure, smoking and respiratory cancer in copper smelter workers. Arch Environ Health 37 325-335.

[WHO] World Health Organization (WHO). Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 2nd edn. Environmental Health Criteria 224. Geneva CH [updated 2001; accessed 2008 April 2].Available from:

Winski SL, Carter DE. 1995. Interactions of rat red blood cell sulfhydryls with arsenate and arsenite. J Toxicol Environ Health 46:379-397.

Yeh S, How SW, Lin CS. 1968. Arsenical cancer of skin-histologic study with special reference to Bowen’s disease. Cancer 21(2):312-39.

Yip L, Dart R. 2001. Arsenic. In: Sullivan J and Kreiger G, eds. Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures, Second Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 858-865.

Yoshida T, Yamauchi H, Sun GF. 2004. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:243-252.

Yu HS, Liao WT, Chai CY. 2006. Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin. J Biomed Sci 13(5):657-66.

Zaldivar R, Prunes L, Ghai GL. 1981. Arsenic dose in patients with cutaneous carcinomata and hepatic haemangio-endothelioma after environmental and occupational exposure. Arch Toxicol 47:145-154.

Zeng H, Uthus EO, Combs GF Jr. 2005. Mechanistic aspects of the interaction between selenium and arsenic. J Inorg Biochem 99:1269-1274.